The new museum Peter’s Ships dedicated to the creation of the Russian Fleet will open in Voronezh at Svoboda Street, 59 on Saturday, May 25. The museum founder, head of the Voronezh Union of Entrepreneurs “Opora” Sergei Naumov, and guide Dmitry Shuvakin told the RIA Voronezh correspondent about the most curious exhibits of the museum.
– The idea sprung up when I was a student – during a kayak trip when my friends and I dreamed of getting to Azov. It was then that we began to study materials about the Peter I era in the archives. And the thought of the museum finally took shape during one of the car trips, when we visited Suzdal on a four-hour tour. 80% of new museums, exhibitions, and parks there are created by entrepreneurs. I thought: why don’t we have this? We began to discuss the possibility of creating such a museum in a family circle and stopped at the Peter I era as the brightest in the history of our region, – Sergei Naumov told.
«Garlics» and a fusil
The modern "Peter Ships" Museum does not at all look like a collection of antiquities under glass. Although are a lot of old items among the exhibits - weapons, furniture, dishes, an anchor with a chain, medals, coins, chests, pipes, scissors with a thimble. An ancient prow gouged out of a solid oak, which was recently brought from Korshevo, is impressive. This authentic artifact gives weight and importance to the adjacent ship models.
But to a greater degree, the historical atmosphere is conveyed by the interactive environment, which seems to have been created specifically for history lessons. The first thing a museum visitor sees is a bas-relief depicting Oleg's campaign against Tsargrad in 907. The Golden Horn Bay was blocked by a chain that the ships could not pass through. Oleg put his ships on wheels, and with a fair wind, the fleet sailed on land to Constantinople. According to the legend, the Greeks decided to buy off and offered the guests a poisoned treat. But Oleg found out about it and increased the tribute - he took four golden coins for each rower and returned to Kiev with rich booty.
Next, we move into the era of Peter the Great. "Sea ships will be built!" - Peter I decided after the first Azov campaign. Above a forged door is the emblem of the ship named Voronezh: as many as three “garlands of victory” given by the emperor to Voronezh, since he considered it the most advanced city in Russia. After all, the best specialists and masters of their craft were concentrated here, and the motto “With Time” meant that Voronezh did not lag behind London, Paris, and Holland.
Each room has bas-reliefs, installations, battle maps. Good-quality copies of things used by our ancestors were recreated by modern craftsmen. A Tatar shield, a breastplate of a Polish warrior, and a mace are indistinguishable from the originals. Another exhibit is a miniature model of a fusel, the prototype of a grenade launcher that shot shrapnel, a cannon with a square vent: it was fired with bricks to save metal. Long "disposable" darts, a Cossack spear with hinges for arms and legs, a streltsy bardiche carried around on the shoulder like a gun...
– It is believed that Suvorov was the father of hand-to-hand combat. But in fact, everything was already studied under Peter I. The captured Swedes were given their weapons back and forced to fight – this is how unknown fighting techniques were studied, – Sergei Naumov noted.
Right in the floor there are trapfalls bristling with pikes and "garlics" or "burrs" - barbs twisted from a thick wire. Before the Battle of Poltava, Peter I ordered to scatter 27 thousand pounds of this "garlic" under the feet of the Swedes.
– Ten cities participated in the creation of exhibits for the museum. Belgorod and Yelets have good blacksmiths. Kharkov provided everything made out of leather: harnesses, boots. St. Petersburg provided ship models, – Sergei Naumov told.
Entire Russia had worked to build the ships: one ship cost 10 thousand, the sum was enormous. Peter the Great increased taxes – he took a tax for beards, for a smoke, for a bath. In Voronezh, more than 20 thousand people worked at shipyards./p>
The Peter’s ships at the museum are recreated up to the smallest details. Here is the little boat of Peter I - his first boat. The Dutch galley was taken to Russia, dismantled and copied by Russian craftsmen. The fortress ship - Admiral Ushakov made these from old ships before the Turkish Wars: their noses were cut off, loopholes were made from all sides, and the ships could fire from all sides. Penetrating the board of such a ship was impossible. There is also an exact copy of Goto Predestinatsia.
The most unusual ship is the “hidden vessel”, the prototype of a submarine.
– The hermetically sealed vessel really went under water, there were four rowers inside. They swam up to the enemy ship, stuck a harpoon into the side, set fire to gunpowder, and the cord burned under water. But then they decided that it was inefficient, so they made a lock chamber from which came out a diver who was breathing through a hose. He drilled holes and hung up a bag of gunpowder, so the explosion turned out to be more powerful, – Sergei Naumov explained.
Watchmaker, gunsmith, engraver
In the room dedicated to the personality of Peter I there is the model of his palace in Voronezh and the house in Chizhovskaya settlement, where the tsar himself made a garden, grew grapes and potatoes. And he himself is portrayed life-sized – 203 centimeters tall.
– For such a height, Peter I had a very small foot size – 38-39. Therefore, he needed a third foothold, so he always carried a cane with him. His orderly carried a couple of canes with him because one could break: the tsar often poured his anger on the guilty and used a heavy stick. He had the total of 400 canes, – Sergei Naumov reported.
The tsar came to Voronezh 15 times and lived in the city for a total of 500 days.
– Peter was greedy for knowledge, adopted and embodied new technologies. He mastered at least 14 professions: watchmaker, gardener, shipbuilder, carpenter, woodworker, architect, cartographer, navigator, turner, blacksmith, gunsmith, typographer. He was also a dentist – the tsar craftily pulled out the teeth of his subjects. In Holland, he mastered the art of engraving, and we are not losing hope to find his engraving “The Triumph of Christianity over Islam, – tour guide Dmitry Shuvakin told.
Under the glass, there is a photocopy of the “Preamble to the Navy Regulations” written by the emperor’s hand in which he declares Voronezh the birthplace of the Navy: “The place for shipbuilding must be created on River Voronezh in the city of the same.”/p>
This removes all disputes about the cradle of the Russian Fleet, although other cities have also claimed the honor: Pereslavl-Zalessky, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, and Nizhny Novgorod.
In Peter’s room, you can also see the exact copy of the Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called - the main state award of that time which was awarded to Peter himself and most of his entourage. The St. Andrew’s flag and the tsar’s personal standard are here as well.
For the kids, the museum has a children's room with a wheel and sea ropes on which they can climb. One can do quests here or watch cartoons on a screen which descends like a sail.
The museum contains information about all the battles of Peter I. Two of them come to life in light projections: this is the Battle at Cape Gangut and the seizure of the Azov Fortress in 1696.
The wall of one of the rooms is occupied by the image of the last battle of the Time of Troubles in Voronezh in 1617, in which 586 Voronezh residents defeated the five-thousand-men army of Lithuanians and Cherkas (it is what Cossack detachments in the service of the Polish-Lithuanian State were called at that time). The Voronezh Alekseevo-Akatov Monastery was built in 1620 in gratitude for the victory.
The Peter’s Ships Museum will open its doors to visitors at 10:00 on May 25. It will work every day except Monday from 9:00 to 19:30.